During the peak of the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia in , epidemiologists at Flowminder, the UN and other institutions pushed for access to anonymized call records, arguing that the information could help to curb the crisis. Unlike highly transmissible, airborne infections, the Ebola virus spreads only through direct contact with infected bodily fluids.
That time, says Erikson, could have been better spent handling the escalating crisis. Liberia decided not to allow the studies, citing privacy concerns. But Bengtsson and his colleagues gained access to anonymized call records from Sierra Leone. Despite the modest result, magazines ran headlines saying that call records could predict where Ebola strikes. Sean McDonald, a digital-governance researcher at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, cautions that crises can be used as an excuse to rapidly analyse call records without frameworks first being used to evaluate their worth or to assess potential harms.
In interviews with Nature , Bengtsson was forthcoming about the limits of call-record analyses, saying they cannot curb Ebola. But he still considers them invaluable, because they could tell officials or aid workers how a population moves, and that might prove useful — although he was not specific about exactly how. Epidemiologists have explored how call records might help to combat other diseases, including malaria in Africa and Asia, dengue in Pakistan and cholera in Haiti.
In , researchers studied records from nearly 15 million mobile-phone subscribers in Kenya 4 , and quantified the seasonal migrations of people who travel to work on tea plantations northeast of Lake Victoria, where malaria is a problem. The researchers suggested that officials ramp up malaria surveillance in the towns to which the workers return. Her team has partnered with Telenor, a Norwegian telecommunications company with operations across Asia. In a study reported this April, the researchers combined analyses of call records in Bangladesh with information on the movement of malaria parasites, gleaned from genetic analyses of the parasite in blood samples.
They found that malaria might be imported into southwest Bangladesh from several places in the country 5. The same practical argument could be made against research on parasite genetics. Phone companies mostly analyse the records to boost their businesses, says Robert Kirkpatrick, director of UN Global Pulse, an initiative to harness big data.
Migrants on the shore of Djibouti raise their mobile phones to try to capture reception in neighbouring Somalia. Other phone operators took over the challenge. The team posted online maps identifying refugee workplaces and homes, and mapped migrations of refugees to hazelnut plantations in Turkey.
Trace Mobile number, Like Country and Telecom Operator Of Netherlands.
The team suggested that migrant workers could benefit from more clinics and child care there. And critics argue that open-ended analyses, such as the refugee challenge, play fast and loose with sensitive information for the sake of exploring big data — rather than doing good for the people in the studies. Another way to find out whether refugees are isolated would be to ask them questions, which allows them to decide what to share, she adds.
Anyone who might want to harm any of the 3. But call-record intelligence might help policymakers by giving them quantitative information about refugee movements.
And an ethics committee vetted the results: when research indicated refugees were working at a location illegally, for example, the committee told them not to publish the finding. Responding to the charge that such data challenges have not helped people, Kirkpatrick says exploration was a necessary first step. The next phase in call-records research, he says, should be cost—benefit analyses that look at the investment needed to conduct a study, roll out an intervention and appraise the advantages for communities.
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In the meantime, exploratory studies continue. But Bengtsson and others are addressing concerns about consent and data security, not least because one negative story — even if the harm is minor — could trigger a backlash that might stop phone companies from opening up their call records to study at no charge. Some pressure to change has come from within the community. To lessen the chance that a person acting in bad faith could get hold of the records and identify individuals, many researchers now try to conduct their analyses on data that remain on phone-company servers.
This reduces the number of extra, unapproved questions that the results can answer.
Risk varies from country to country. Others have a history of human-rights abuses. For example, a municipality hires a tracking company to track the crowd at an event. According to the Processor agreement, the company may only collect this data for this purpose and may not re use it for its own purposes. In this case, the municipality is the party responsible for the processing, and the tracking company is the Processor. It can also be the other way around. If the tracking company also processes the data for its own purposes, such as generating statistics or developing other services, then the company and its clients such as the municipality can be jointly responsible for processing.
Then they are jointly responsible for safeguarding the privacy of those involved, such as shop visitors and pedestrians. This also applies if an organisation processes personal data using WiFi tracking. The principles under 3 and 4 cannot apply, because there is no legal obligation to follow people via WiFi tracking, and because no lives can be saved in acute emergencies with WiFi tracking. The relevant principles are further explained below.
If the responsible party wishes to rely on the basis of consent Article 6 1 under a of the GDPR , the party concerned must be able to give its prior consent to the party that wants to track it using WiFi signals.
Will the operator immediately see my number and location if I call from my mobile?
Such consent is only valid if a data subject gives freely and if his consent is based on specific information, without any ambiguity. It is quite difficult to ask a pedestrian for permission in advance. The sensor makes no distinction between the telephone owner who has or has not agreed to be followed by means of WiFi tracking. In order to obtain valid consent, the tracking company or the client must inform the data subjects properly about the processing of the MAC addresses and other telephone data.
But just hanging up a poster is not enough. In short, the basis to "ask permission from the data subject" usually does not provide a good basis for WiFi tracking, because in practice it is difficult to ask permission in advance from random pedestrians or shoppers. The basis of processing on the basis of an agreement Article 6 1 , under b of the GDPR is also not applicable in this context, because shopkeepers and municipalities have no agreements with random passers-by or the shopping public.
Only administrative bodies can base the processing of personal data on the basis of the need to perform a task in the public interest or in the exercise of public authority Article 6 1 e GDPR. Administrative bodies can use WiFi tracking when it is really necessary to carry out a public task. It is therefore not enough that the processing is "handy" for the performance of a public task, such as maintaining public order or being able to take data-driven decisions about the design of shopping areas, for example.
The administrative body must be able to substantiate that the infringement of privacy is necessary.
In doing so, those responsible must, as in the case of the basis of legitimate interest, assess it in the light of the principles of proportionality and subsidiarity. This means that you have to ask yourself whether processing in this way is really necessary, i. The promotion of the legitimate interest basis 6 of the organisation can also serve as a basis for processing MAC addresses in WiFi tracking. This basis is not suitable for administrative bodies when carrying out a public task, but it is suitable for companies.
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Home Sending mail Country guides Netherlands. Close Share this page. Netherlands Guide to sending items from the UK to Netherlands. In capital letters. Preferably in the language of the despatching country or in an internationally recognized language. For further clarification please refer to the UPU website More help Address formats for Western Europe Address formats for the rest of the world How to wrap and pack your international items For many countries it is advisable to include the addressees mobile telephone number on parcels to assist in delivery.
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Narcotics such as opium, morphine, cocaine, heroin, hashish and psychotropic substances such as amphetamines, LSD, benzoamphetamines, etc. Pharmaceutical products Serums and vaccines. Non-approved pharmaceutical products. Tanning or dyeing extracts; tannins and their derivatives; dyes, pigments and other colouring matter; paints and varnishes; putty and other mastics; inks Nitrocellulose-based paint, lake and raw materials; explosive or inflammable materials such as varnishes. Explosives; pyrotechnic products; matches; pyrophoric alloys; certain combustible preparations Gunpowder.
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